Enforce™ for Greenhouse Whitefly Control
Enforce™ is a tiny parasitic wasp that specializes in parasitizing whitefly, specifically greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum), although it will attack other whitefly species.
It is very useful in greenhouse crops as part of an Integrated Pest Management programme, and has been used successfully in crops such as tomato, cucumber, eggplant and ornamental plants .
The Pest: Greenhouse Whitefly
Greenhouse whitefly adults are small, white, fly-like insects that are generally found in the head of plants and the undersides of the leaves, and cause damage by sucking sap from the plant.
Greenhouse whitefly lay their eggs on the underside of leaves, where they mature through four nymph or ‘scale’ stages before emerging as adults. All nymph and adult stages cause damage to the plants, and in severe infestations they may kill plants.
Signs and symptoms of a greenhouse whitefly infestation may include:
The Solution – Enforce™
The Enforce™ wasp is 0.6 mm long and is recognizable by its black head and thorax and a yellow abdomen.
A female wasp inserts her eggs into 3rd and 4th instar nymphs of greenhouse whitefly.
The egg hatches and the wasp’s larva develop inside the greenhouse whitefly nymph, eventually killing it.
After 10-14 days, the greenhouse whitefly nymph will begin to turn black, and about 10 days later an adult wasp will emerge.
Once the Enforce™ wasp has hatched, it will seek out more whitefly nymphs to parasitize, leaving the black case behind.
Enforce ™ is not considered harmful to humans and animals, and no environmental impacts are expected.
Environmental Conditions Required
Enforce™ works best at temperatures of 20-28 °C, below 18 ° C the wasp's activity decreases, and temperatures above 38 °C are lethal. A wasp life cycle will take between 10 and 30 days, depending on temperature.
Enforce™ should ideally be introduced to the crop when greenhouse whitefly populations are low as a preventative.
It is recommended that Enforce™ is introduced regularly when whiteflies are present, initially at a minimum of every 2 weeks over at least an 8 week period.
Monitor your plants once a week, and after four weeks black ‘scale’ should be present. When 80% of the ‘scale’ is black, the release rate can be re-evaluated.
Tags can be concentrated in greenhouse whitefly ‘hotspots’ within your crop. Enforce™ adults are able to fly about 20 metres and disperse readily.
Higher release rates may be required during the winter when temperatures are lower and control is more difficult.
Enforce™ is supplied as black parasitized greenhouse whitefly nymphs or black ‘scale’ on cardboard tags, and the adult wasp emerges from this ‘scale’.
Enforce™ tags are sent via fast-post or courier (at the customer’s request).
Two tag sizes are available:
Release and Storage Instructions
Enforce™ tags need the following handling and treatment:
Enforce™ adults will begin to emerge from the black ‘scale’ on the tags within 2-6 days at 20 ° C. The black case will stay attached to the tags. A small hole should be visible with a hand lens once the adult has emerged.
After three weeks it is safe to assume all Enforce wasps have hatched, so the tags may be removed if desired.
Within four weeks of release, black ‘scale’ should be present within your crop, on the lower leaves of your plants. Adult wasps should emerge within 2-3 weeks.
Before introducing Enforce into your crop, please check residual chemical effects and ensure you know chemical compatibilities and products that may be applied.
Before introducing Enforce™ into your crop, please check residual chemical effects and ensure you know chemical compatibilities and products that may be applied.
Lists of compatible pesticides and persistence periods can be found in the publication "The Good Bug Book", Second edition (2002), editor Richard Llewellyn. Excerpts of the book can be obtained from the Encarsia page of the Australasian Biological Control Association website, click here then scroll to the bottom of the page and click on the PDF link.
PricePRICE: $12.00 per 1000 wasps (minimum order) plus GST and Freight